Oral Reading and fluency:
1. Provide meaningful exposure
to oral reading.
2. Allow students to preview or silently rehearse material for oral reading.
3. Use repeated reading to help students develop accuracy. If students have difficulty reading whole pages of text, repeat sentences or paragraphs as appropriate.
4. As a modification to oral reading, use progression – e.g. Read page 1, teach page 2; read pages 1 and 2, teach page 3; read pages –3, teach page 4; continue to the end of the book.
5. Ask students to scan text before they read orally to identify unknown words. Practice pronouncing these words before oral reading begins.
6. Assist students to remain on task by intermixing whole group (class) choral reading with individual "reading solos"
7. Record student’s oral reading to help them hear various deviations from text.
8. Maintain student’s focus on reading automatically during oral reading.
9. Use miscue analysis as the primary method for evaluating oral reading.
10. Promote characterisation and expression of oral reading by encouraging students to act out text.
1. Use the Language Experience
Approach to develop voice print matches to new vocabulary items.
2. Use visual methods mapping, feature analysis or Venn diagrams to develop relationships between methods.
3. Avoid fill in the blank, multiple choice, and matching exercises when teaching for vocabulary development as they often encourage impulsive guessing.
4. Use vocabulary exercises which promote sentence writing or completion.
5. Give specific attention to vocabulary items used in directions. These items should be modelled through guided practice.
6. Pre-teach vocabulary necessary for correct oral reading.
7. Teach strategies for conceptual analysis and dictionary usage.
8. Encourage students to collect special words in word banks or special journals.
9. In order to provide for transitions to content area subjects, preteach vocabulary that specifically deals with content processes, especially mathematics.
10. Use word families to teach letter sound relationships.
11. Place emphasis on meaningful phonics activities.
1. Prepare text, which contains
one or two nonsense words. Students should provide possible choices for
2. Get the pupils to document their prior knowledge about a topic, to set purposes for reading and to evaluate what they’ve read.
3. Instruct students to read post-reading questions before reading the text.
4. nstruct pupils to highlight/underline answers to questions.
5. Encourage pupils to self-monitor for understanding after each paragraph.
6. Encourage students to question each other after reading.
7. Encourage pupils to read difficult passages out loud in order to hear the text in their own words.
8. Place emphasis on prediction rather than on literal questions.
9. Give student opportunities to illustrate or sketch scenes from the story.
10. Give the students the opportunity to retell or re-enact story parts using creative drama or puppets.
11. Use writing activities in lieu of oral questions whenever possible.
12. Allow students to write question to be included on tests.
Attitude and motivation towards reading:
1. Let students self-select
materials whenever possible.
2. Provide opportunities to develop expertise through personal research.
3. Allow students to create bulletin boards for classrooms, libraries and talks.
4. Read to students virtually every day from various genres (i.e. read more than just stories)
5. Let students read for specific time periods in order to earn certain privileges e.g. special clothes day (jeans day), homework free pass, television viewing at lunch, computer time ….etc
6. Allow the students the opportunity to read to special people in school. e.g. Principal, the secretary…etc
7. If incentives are provided for reading books, place the emphasis on minutes of reading rather than completion of books.
8. Encourage reading by using computer software. Get the pupils to read electronic reading books in small groups.
9. Set up a "book buddy" programme in which older students read to younger ones.
Association for Children and adults with Learning Difficulties. Suffolk Chambers, 1 Suffolk Street, Dublin 2. 01- 6790276