We must think of the mole in three ways:
1. As the molecular mass
in grams, e.g. for O2, 1 mole = 2x16 =32g.,
for CO2, 1 mole = 12+(2x16) = 44g.
and for H2SO4, 1 mole = (2x1) +32 + (4x16) = 98g.
2. As the amount that contains 6x1023 particles:
i.e. 1 mole, or 32g. of oxygen contains 6x1023 molecules.
3. If the substance is a gas, then 1 mole of it has a volume of 22.4 dm3 (22,400 cm3) at S.T.P.
so 32g. of oxygen has a volume of 22.4 dm3 at S.T.P.
(i)How many molecules are there in 64g. of oxygen?
(of oxygen) = 1 mole
So 64g. = 2 moles
1 mole contains 6 x 1023 molecules
So 2 moles contain 12 x 1023 molecules
i.e. 1.2 x 1024 molecules. = Ans.
(ii) What is the volume in dm3 of 8.5g. of ammonia gas (NH3) at S.T.P?
17g. (of NH3)
= 1 mole
so 8.5g. = 0.5 mole
so 0.5 mole has a volume of 22.4 / 2 = 11.2 dm3. = Ans.
(iii) How many molecules
are there in 4.48 dm3 of sulphur dioxide?
(The volume is measured at S.T.P.)
22.4 dm3 = 1 mole
so 4.48 dm3 = 4.48 / 22.4 mole
= 0.2 mole
contains 6x1023 molecules
so 0.2 mole contains 0.2 x 6 x 1023 molecules
= 1.2 x 1023 molecules = Ans.
(iv) What is the mass in grams at S.T.P. of 44,800 cm3 of CO2?
cm3 of CO2 at S.T.P. = 1 mole
so 44800 cm3 of CO2 at S.T.P. = 2 moles
1 mole of CO2 = 44g.
so 2 moles of CO2 = 88g. = Ans.
(v) What is the relative molecular mass of a gas if 0.36g. of the gas has a volume of 500 cm3 at S.T.P?
Suggest what the gas might be.
At S.T.P. 500 cm3
of the gas weigh 0.36g.
so 1 cm3 weighs 0.36 / 500
so 22400 cm3 weigh 22400 x 0.36 / 500 = 16.128 g.
The gas is methane, CH4,whose Mr = 16.
Remember the three ways
of looking at the mole:
|1. 6 X 1023 Particles 2. Volume = 22.4 dm3 (if a gas!)|
|3. 1 mole contains the Atomic / Molecular Mass in grams|