on teaching Children with ADD/H
Recommendations for the
proper learning environment:
Recommendations for giving
Seat ADD/H student near teacherís
desk but include as part of the regular class seating
Place ADD/H student up front
with his back to the rest of the class to keep other students out of view.
Surround ADD/H student with
good role models, preferably those seen as "Significant others". Encourage
peer tutoring and co-operative learning.
Avoid distracting stimuli.
Try not to place the ADD/H student near: heaters, doors, windows, high
traffic areas, air conditioner.
ADD/H student do not handle
change well, so avoid: Transitions, Changes in schedules, Physical Relocation,
Disruptions. (monitor closely on field trips)
Be creative! Produce a "stimuli
reduced area!" and let all students have access to it.
Encourage parents to set up
routines at home study and organisation of materials.
Recommendations for student
Maintain eye contact with ADD/H
student during verbal instruction.
Make directions clear and concise.
Simplify complex directions.
Make sure that the ADD/H student
comprehends before beginning the task.
Repeat in a calm, positive,
Help the ADD/H student to feel
comfortable with seeking assistance (most ADD/H student wonít ask.)
These pupils need more help
for a longer period of time than the average child. Gradually reduce assistance.
Require a daily assignment
notebook, if necessary. Make sure student writes down the assignment and
both parents and teachers sign daily for homework tasks.
The childrenís desks should
be cleared off except for the materials that are needed for that class
The teacher and child should
have an understood signal the teacher can help the child monitor attention.
Verbal humiliation should be avoided.
Provide for small group learning
as ADD/H students experience more success academically, socially and behaviourally
in small group settings.
Use computers, hands-on learning,
high-stimulation learning resources, expressive arts, multiple intelligences,
whole language, and attention-grabbing activities.
Create interactive, hands-on
lessons, as these pupils need a multi-sensory approach.
Work on the childís strengths
and interests to develop his/her self-esteem and improve his/her attention.
These pupils need to be responsible
for their own behaviour and actions. Provide them with strategies for self-monitoring,
self-instruction and self-reinforcement.
The teacher should teach organisation
and study skills: Learn to listen / getting the meaning from context /
Note taking / A way to read textbooks / Problem solving / How to study
/ Improving your memory / Organising the paragraph / Taking tests / Using
time / Using formulae / Estimation.
Recommendations for behaviour
Give one task at a time, but
Modify assignments as necessary.
Develop an individualised programme.
Make sure that you are testing
knowledge and not attention span.
Give extra time for certain
tasks. The ADD/H student may work more slowly.
Keep in mind that the ADD/H
student can get easily frustrated. Stress, pressure and fatigue can break
down the ADD/H studentís self control and lead to poor behaviour.
Providing Supervision and
Remain calm, infraction of
rule and donít debate or argue with the student.
Have pre-established consequences
Administer consequences immediately
for misbehaviour and monitor frequently.
Enforce rules of the classroom
Discipline should be appropriate
to "fit" the crime, without harshness.
Avoid ridicule and criticism.
Remember that, ADD/H students find control difficult.
Avoid publicly reminding students
on medication to "take their medicine"
Other Educational Recommendations
which may help some ADD/H students:
Reward more than you punish.
Praise immediately any and
all good behaviour and performance.
Change rewards if not effective
in motivating behavioural change.
Find ways to encourage the
Teach the child to reward him/herself.
Encourage positive self-talk (i.e. "You did very well remaining in your
seat today. How did you feel about that?"). This encourages the child to
think positively about him/herself.
Association for Children and
adults with Learning Difficulties. Suffolk Chambers, 1 Suffolk Street,
Dublin 2. 01- 6790276
Private tutoring and peer tutoring
A class with a low student
Ė teacher ratio.
Social skills training and
organisational skills training.
Use of a word processor or
computer for schoolwork.
Individualised activities that
are mildly competitive or non-competitive.
Involvement in social activities
which will help develop social skills and self-esteem.
Allowing ADD/H students to
play with younger children if thatís where they "fit in.". Many ADD/H students
have more in common with younger children. The child can still develop
valuable social skills from interaction with younger children.
With homework, be mindful of
the fact that takes the ADD/H student on average three times as long to
complete an assignment at home as it would in a structured classroom. Set
assignments with this in mind.